(Affirmative Action Around the World An Empirical Study Yale Nota Bene) PDF READ ò Thomas Sowell

Ell as notes and an indexWhat is it that makes affirmative action so harmful For one it politicizes identity and encourages those who are not at all disadvantaged classes from enshrining their sense of privilege with the protection of law It also creates a widespread feeling in a given society that some people for reasons of identity are given undeserved blessings and taking places that should belong to those who deserve it Affirmative Action also creates a perverse set of incentives that inspires the Ali Baba sort of corruption where a privileged person lends their name and identity to an effort that is actually run by a disadvantaged but motivated and talented group like a *Chinese Business Manager In Malaysia * business manager in Malaysia a white American who wants to use a token minority owner in order to scarce Government Contracts The Desire To Help Those contracts The desire to help those have historically had success than others often leads to perverse situations where people seek to claim identities they may not really deserve in order to gain from the politicized identity that receives privilege and over a privilege that demeans the achievements of those who have received it because there is the awareness that it is done with lower standards than others have demonstrated in achieving their own success Thoroughly researched and thought provoking book Though I had always been sceptical of the philosophy underlying affirmative action Thomas Sowell outlines the ways in which affirmative action has failed by examining its conseuences Despite the rhetoric used in the promotion of preferential policies such policies have often been expanded to encompass so many distinct groups that the benefits received by any one group have been minimal resulting basically in policies that merely discriminate negatively against particular groups eg white males in America or the productive sub cultures in IndiaSowell explores what economic effects have proceeded the implementation of preferential policies and they have invariably been either negative even for the groups they were meant to help or too difficult to determine economies are highly complex Sowell also shows how preferential policies have tended to favour the most fortunate peo Sowell examines and critiues affirmative action programs in various nations including the US Sri Lanka India Malaysia and Nigeria He presents persuasive data that these programs do little to improve the condition of the intended beneficiaries end up benefitting primarily those who are already doing well and lead to racial resentment I wish Sowell had examined a greater variety of nations including European and South American countries to the extent any of them has such programs but otherwise it is well done This is an excellent book by Thomas Sowell on what I would call the myth of affirmative action One of the points highlighted by Sowell is the fact that affirmative action is implemented based on good ideas but never on empirical evidence And it is because of this that affirmative action AA has never proven to be successful anywhere in the world In fact AA has been very successful in helping the upper crust of the demographic supposedly in need and never the truly poor and destitute of that demographicIf ou ever wondered about the successes or failures of AA then Vol au-dessus d'un nid de coucou you should read this book It has been well researched and is easy to read I thought this was a fantastic book A truly well researched empirical study of affirmative action While I ve also read McWhorter and so have read some tough love for the black community this is the first book I ve read on these types of issues that isn t mostly anecdotal Things that struck me the most were the link between preferences and rising racial tensions that minority students mismatched with schools too difficult for them tend to become activists at the school and blame the school s discrimination for their failure observations on the creamy layer privileged minorities getting the lion s share of preferences the fact that women who don t interrupt their careers for childrearing make money than men and that Asian minorities in the US have gone from the bottom to the top without preferences Aside from the fact that affirmative action hasn t worked and the stigma it places on us in schools and in the workplace it also starts getting ridiculous ifou really think about it At this point everyone is just hating on white men EVERYONE s presence is considered preferable to white males Every non white male group has their own exclusionary organizations Actually with the gay rights movement we ve carved it down to straight white males As Dr Sowell says these politics are great for people who want to make a living as activists but there is no incentive to ever STOP being an activist when goals are met And curricula cater to these activists Women s Studies Black Studies ueer Studies whatever happened to History Sociology Psychology Anthropology Literature It seems like these majors are journeys of self discovery than they are training people for careers Anyway I loved this book but I had to take off a star because they stopped editing somewhere after the middle of the book Suddenly there were so many typos wrong words repeated words etc Also the end was a bit long and repetitive and could have used a little tightening up editing Still definitely worth readin. Pening” Amy Chua author of World on Fire How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability“A masterpiece that deserves to be one of the most influential books of our time Any honest reader will be informed and enlightened” Donald Kagan Yale University“A gem of a book A brilliant and learned analysis of the negative effects of racially preferential policies both in the United States and in several other countries around the world” Stephan Thernstrom Harvard Universi. D second or third tier schools Great Success Instead Waste Years Of Their success instead waste The Summer I Wasn't Me years of their at top institutions either failing to graduate or migrating to less demanding subjects Sowell also makes the important point that affirmative action policies hurt ualified blacks as well who must operate under a cloud of uncertainty that their ualifications may be partially due to affirmative action Also the unfounded belief that much of the economic advance of blacks in the United States is due to affirmative action infantilizes blacks Much of their economic advance was prior to the 1960 s than after affirmative action policies were enacted Following the commencement of preferential policies the best off blacks have been helped while the poorest blacks have actually regressed economically These effects of affirmative action are rarely discussed so I think that Sowell s concise presentation of the arguments against affirmative action in the United States is very valuable I would recommend any of Sowell s books to people interested in economics politics and society He weaves statistics facts and inferences together like no other writer than I have ever encountered This book is an important retort against those that believe that affirmative action and other preferential policies are benign and that we can control the effects of those policies His case studies demonstrate that preferential policies can have wide ranging effects that uickly escalate out of the control of anyone Doing what he does best Easy to read as per usual nicely backed up with that seemingly forgotten little thing we have these days good ol fashioned facts Very well researched however I found that many of the issues covered in the US chapter he covered before in several books so it was kind of boring having to re read everything again The chapter on India was the most interesting by far as well as the impact on integroup tensions which eventually lead to civil war in Sri Lanka and how they were influenced by affirmative action policiesSowell is my favorite author of all time I ve read at least 90% of the books he has put out so far Whetherou support or oppose affirmative action this is a worthy read Snowell elaborated the negative effects of AA around the world based on his empirical analysis but not on ideals Since I studied and worked in Singapore and knew many Chinese friends from Malaysia I found the exposition of the presidential uota for bumiputera son of the soil uite resonating The chapter on AA in US is even relevant as I heard objections and support to AA policy from many friends Although the author is very convincing and speaking an authoritative tone it is dangerous to just listen to one side of argument Nevertheless Khaiye Aur Vajan Ghataiye you will find this book informative and insightful on whatou think of AA In order to understand this book and the author s approach Tales from a Pilots Logbook you have to know that Sowell is not addressing the subject of affirmative action and racial preference and identity politics from the point of view of political analysis but rather from the point of view of economics Sowell a man of color who has achieved great success in his professional life might be expected on identity grounds to support affirmative action that would benefit his people but as a rigorously minded economist he realizes and demonstrates firmly in this book that affirmative action politics politicizes identity problems and has not served to effectively address the need of societies for well trained people instead leading to corruption of a very particular sort and to a failure on the part of privileged minorities to develop the skills and approaches and success that are resented in other successful people The author s rigor allows him to make a point that is not well appreciated and certainly can be considered as politically incorrect but truthful in a larger sense that deserves to be recognized Whether or notou will be able to appreciate this book will depend largely on whether ou prefer to focus on empirical matters or on the good intentions of affirmative actions policiesThis particular book is a relatively short one at about 200 pages and it is focused on affirmative action around the world and the results of that The book begins with a preface and a chapter that gives the international perspective of affirmative action and introduces the approach of the book 1 After that the author explores affirmative action in India 2 where dalits and tribes and other groups have managed to have for decades privileges that have led to a high degree of resentment The author then looks at Malaysia and the way that Malays have sought to enshrine privilege as opposed to the successful and harder working Chinese and Indians 3 The author discusses the affirmative action in Sri Lanka that sought to favor the Sinhalese against the Tamil that led to an immense and deadly politicization about identity 4 After that the author explores the similar problems where the Fulani Hausa were favored over Ibo and Yoruba in Nigeria also with tragic and deadly effects 5 The author at least turns to the American experience and the way that intersectionality has led to a majority of people being viewed as oppressed minorities but without the statistical rigor that other countries have had 6 finally ending with a look at the past and the future of affirmative action as Ts one of the most prolific intellectually independent and iconoclastic is Thomas Sowell Enormously learned wonderfully clear headed he sees reality as it is and flinches at no truth Sowell’s presentation of the data is instructive and illuminating and disturbing” Carl Cohen Commentary“Another brilliant bracing achievement by Thomas Sowell With characteristic lucidity erudition and depth Sowell examines the true effects of affirmative action around the globe This book is compelling important mind Problematic I agree with the basic premise that

Racial Preference Uotas Invariably 
preference uotas invariably social problems However what could have been an effective analysis is racial preference uotas invariably cause social problems However what could have been an effective analysis is astray by political hyperbole Sowell s intention is to do a global empirical study of why affirmative actionracial preference uotas in any country don t work as a matter of top down government policy and often lead to greater racial problems when implemented His problem is that he spends most of the book reaching for the low hanging fruit of third world societies in which racial preference has led to great loss of life India Sri Lanka Malaysia and Nigeria then skips straight to the United States To begin with this is not an apples to apples comparison as the countries in uestion have almost nothing demographically or culturally in common with the United States All are in parts of the world with a large native States All are in parts of the world with a large native that was screwed up by 19th century European colonialism and none has existed as an independent country for than 100 ears This would seem to be an argument against racial uotas in 19th century British imperial policy than a valid argument that affirmative action itself is the problem This also sets up a couple of other problems one is the repugnant implication that black people being admitted to the University of Michigan without having the grades for it is a problem on the scale of wholesale genocide The other is the possibly even repugnant implication that the United States is a third world country worthy of comparison to the likes of Nigeria The really unfortunate thing is that Sowell could easily have covered the problems that affirmative action has also caused in first world societies which would have given his argument here a lot credibility by inviting a valid comparison to the United States Ignoring Europe in particular really hurts him white Europeans from France to Scandinavia have a very strong strand of racism that has led to real social problems much closer to those we experience in the US and many of their affirmative action policies are just as problematic as ours are Given American conservatives general loathing of France in particular ou d think Sowell would have jumped at the opportunity to skewer that particular European country at the very least The third world stuff could have reinforced such an argument in a way that would have made a very strong case overall However because he ignores Europe this is not truly a global study as written The individual case studies are certainly interesting but the entire design of the book is incomplete in a way that was easily avoidable if Sowell had been willing to do a little bit research instead of just jumping straight to the lowest common denominator Affirmative Action Around the World An Empirical Study by Thomas Sowell was fantastic I have thoroughly enjoyed every Sowell book I ve ever read so it was not surprising that I liked this a lot Sowell looks at several societies that have enacted preferential policies and tracks the history of intergroup relations in those societies and the history and effects of preferential policies in those societies Among these case studies are India Sri Lanka Nigeria Malaysia and the United States Sri Lanka is an especially illuminating example because relations were peaceful between the majority and minority racial groups before preferential policies were enacted Preferential policies in Sri Lanka sparked a domino effect that eventually resulted in civil war Sri Lanka is an extreme case but preferential policies in all cases have tended to result in increased tension and hostility between and among groups Sowell s central premise is that affirmative action is rarely if ever evaluated using empirical methods Those touting affirmative action policies tend to rely on the intentions and morality behind the policies rather than looking at the actual results It is not surprising that they do not look at the actual results because those results have been negligent at best and overwhelmingly negative in many cases Sowell details how preferential policies tend to increase polarization between and among groups as group differences are politicized Even as differences narrow activists and political leaders that have rode to power the politicization of group differences have every incentive to increase demands and widen the range of groups to demonize I especially liked Sowell s analysis of affirmative action in the United States as affirmative action policies in the US are most familiar to me He details the sorting effect under affirmative action policies the most ualified blacks end up at Ivy League schools because they are in such high demand to be able to report particular diversity numbers Schools in the next tier then have a similar demand for blacks which causes blacks to attend colleges for which they would not otherwise be ualified Blacks that would be than ualified for second and third tier schools end up at schools where they are overmatched and unsurprisingly they graduate at much lower rates than members of other racial groups when admitted under affirmative action policies Blacks admitted without the aid of affirmative action policies graduate at similar rates to whites so those lower graduation rates are clearly a result of the affirmative action policies Blacks who otherwise may have attende. In this important book an eminent authority presents a new perspective on affirmative action investigating its actual conseuences in the United States and in other countries where it has been in effect Evaluating his empirical data Thomas Sowell concludes that race preference programs worldwide have not met expectations and have often produced the opposite of what was originally intended“A delight terse well argued and utterly convincing” Economist “Among contemporary economists and social theoris.


Affirmative Action Around the World An Empirical Study Yale Nota Bene