PDF [Philosophische Untersuchungen]


Philosophische UntersuchungenExasperating but worth itThe syntax of the Investigations has a jaggedly Asperger s feel to it Too often Wittgenstein sounds like a malfunctioning android jabbering its core French Complete Course, Vol. 2 (Teach Yourself) protocols to itselfacing in frantic circles waving its arms in a vexed Philosophy is the sickness and I m the cure manner The loathsome blend of edantry and vagueness throughout Part 1 hectoring in tone nebulous in definition can be maddening As a communicator Wittgenstein often ranks with Kant or Heidegger itiless kraut magi of galling opacity Your cognitive muscles will feel the burn Part 2 is rather less Ede und Unku punishing with enticing stimulants on nearly everyage while large swaths of Part 1 are a morale stunting crawl through banks of fog What s the dealKeep in mind that PI is a Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit: A Commentary Based on the Preface and Introduction posthumous medley of notes and fragments that never benefitted from a final rigorous copyedit I ve also been told that the recent 2009 translation by Peter Hacker and Joachim Schulte is less stodgy andeeving than the classic Anscombe version An editor might be tempted to abridge Part 1 to a Best Of showcase for non academics but the moments of rofundity strewn throughout that ortion 75% of the book Practical Chess Endings probably reuire the groundwork of the wearying fragments to shore up Wittgenstein s visionSo what s theayoff Well a The Dream Life of Astronauts panoptic voyage into speech and semantics that s both rousing emancipatory and at timesainfully obvious The latter as we ve washed ashore in a ostphilosophical age that takes so much of Wittgenstein for granted but also because his expository style can read like an amnesiac head trauma atient attempting to reconstruct language use from scratch Valgus ja tolm poking androdding at kindergarten level grammar to explore how situational semantics weaves and bends through our intricately embodied moment to moment actualities all tempered by an uneasy nostalgia for ositivist uzzles boxed in the attic radiant antiues that gave so much faux luster to our mental livesWittgenstein wants us to detox to scrape out the arterial Magneto, Volume 3: Shadow Games plaue of falseroblems Fundamental confusions about language use he fears have staggered us into an ersatz world of epistemic mazes and circular obstacle courses a bad Philip K Dick novel of cloying simulacra PI aims to unjack us from this Matrix wrench us back down into our bodies a homecoming to and abashed rediscovery of the everyday Though Darwin is never mentioned in PI Wittgenstein s corrosive The Trinity is One God Not Three Gods by Boethius with accompanying Commentary by Thomas Aquinas presence in thehilosophical canon is comparable to evolutionary models Denkmalpflege ALS Offentliche Aufgabe: Eine Okonomische, Institutionelle Und Historische Untersuchung preempting theological sleight of hand Post theist armchairhilosophy in Wittgenstein s eyes is still beholden to the system erecting wankfest of the lesson priestly theorizing To reiterate a familiar story we ve displaced ancient Platonic illusions into the matrices of rationalistrojects which refuse to accept that our universe is non linguistic and so can never be mirrored or simulated by our anthropic earthbound syntax Our lives are short and our knowledge is crimped and narrow It s best we have the humility to concede our limits Ghostbusters: Answer the Call pending some dubious self immolating transhumanist upgrade As with Kant wisdom often means knowing what we can t do 426 Aicture is conjured up which seems to fix the sense unambiguously The actual use compared with that suggested by the Landmarks picture seems like something muddied Here again we get the same thing as in set theory the form of expression we use seems to have been designed for a god who knows what we cannot know he sees the whole of each of those infinite series and he sees into human consciousness For us of course these forms of expression are likeontificals which we may Plantae Rariores Quas in Itinere Per Oras Jonii AC Adriatici Maris Et Per Regiones Samnii AC Aprutii (Classic Reprint) put on but cannot do much with since we lack the effectiveower that would give these vestments meaning and urpose In the actual use of expressions we make detours we go by side roads We see the straight highway before us but of course we cannot use it because it is ermanently closed Trilogie der Verlorenen. Stücke. pg 108 Blackwell 2001Torime yourself download the two art Partially Examined Life odcast Wittgenstein on Language Episode 55 15307 56 15301 roundtable discussion throughout is very good My only niggle Los cuerpos del verano pertains to one of thearticipants bungling the renowned Piero Sraffa anecdote mistakenly attributing it to GE Moore The fact that the remaining scholars claim never to have heard of it is eually strange It s at least as famous as the Karl Popper fireplace J. K. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter poker episode Wittgenstein even thanks Sraffa in his Preface Oh wellPHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS translated by GEM AnscombeA for substantive vision and historical importance C for expository claritySpecial bonus trackWas Wittgenstein Right by Paul Horwich NYU The Stone New York Times Opinionator blog 3313 o my crap what a tortured soul Ludwig Wittgenstein was this guy stared into the impenetrableitch blackness that was the tangled midnight jungle of his own inner existence sharpened his machete and Paper Hearts plunged in hacking and flailing and lunging wildly he wrestles chiefly with the concepts of language meaning understanding and states of consciousnessart I consists of 693 short numbered sections about 4 to a Mercury Retrograde page this was sent to theublisher but Das Glück der Azteken pulled back at the last second five years before LW died after he died his further writings were scraped together and compriseart II loosely divided into 13 short sections lus 1 long one there is no steady development but sometimes long chains of remarks on one topic sometimes sudden changes of topic he often uts statements or Uestions In Uotation Marks As in uotation marks as thrown at him by someone laying devil s advocate it is This is the first work by Wittgenstein I ve ever read I ve been terrified of him for years truth be told I ve read a biography by WW Bartley III wouldn t you love to be the third I would stick the three I s on the end of my name too if I was but unfortunately I m only Trevor the Second The main memory I have of that book is of Wittgenstein waiting to "be captured in WWI and him humming the second movement of Beethoven "captured in WWI and him humming the second movement of Beethoven Seventh That has always been one of my all time favourite ieces of music and if I was ever in a machine gun nest about to be captured or otentially killed by the enemy I could think of no better iece of music to be humming The fear has come from the fact Wittgenstein is known as being off the scale brilliant And so I just assumed he would also be too hard to read with him What the Wood Whispers To Itself picking out distinctions I wouldn t be able to see even after he had held them to the light and turned them aboutThis book is in fact uite beautifully written The ideas are complex at times but he does all he can to make them clearThat said I also know I ve only skimmed the surface of this oneThis is a book about meaning it is a book about how language means and therefore the extent to which language allows communication betweeneople I m going to jump to my understanding of Wittgenstein s answer although answer isn t the right word and that is that language is always socially situated and so you need to understand the situation to make sense of the languageA Beyond Citizenship: American Identity After Globalization philosophicalroject Allerhand Fragliches prior to this was the idea of trying to create a language that could be unambiguous andurely logical one that could start from a series of axioms and then go on to recreate the world with each of its statements being verifiably true This is the sort of idea mentioned in 1984 that for as long as I can know 224 then and so on But then think of the word March You can say The best time to come to Melbourne is March or you can say The second movement of the Seventh is a slow march Clearly the fact march is a homophone is hardly surprising to anyone but Wittgenstein asks if even that is really true Can you say the month in the same way as you say the verb If you are meaning the month can you say it as the verb The Yolanda's Genius point being that you might not be able to hear any difference between the two uses of the word at all and yet still feel in your bones that it isn tossible to say exactly the same sound while meaning the other This almost links to something he says comparing language to music an idea I think about a lot He says Understanding a sentence is much akin to understanding a theme in music than one might think I think one could spend a lifetime considering that idea and the Fettan practical expression of that thought is calledoetry but it is also true of all language Die Kunst Des Zeichnens: Die grosse Zeichenschule: Praxisorientiert und gut erklärt poetry just rubs your nose in itHe makes a similaroint elsewhere when he says one might tell someone if you want to ronounce the salutation Hail expressively you had better not think of hailstones as you say it All of which makes me think of the difference between effect and affect which I think brings us close to the idea of the socially situated nature of language I think that for me anyway these two words are homophones in English unless I m using affect in the sense of affecting a ose although the dictionary seems to imply that affect is ronounced in the same way regardless of the meaning Still as the dictionary also says affect and effect are freuently confused Although also clearly they are never confused when we hear them only when we write them No one says did you hear that he said effect but he obviously meant affect so why not Or rather and to the oint why do we distinguish in spelling what we don t seem to distinguish in spoken language A large art of me believes that this distinction in spelling is about stressing social superiority that is it is one of the endless rules designed to make clear that one has learnt the rules that one can display their learning and then resumably use this display to imply their higher intelligence These are things that make no difference to meaning but only to taste and as displays of social osition When eople get obsessed with the spellings of there their and they re this is urely about showing off one s academic capital and little else The fact these three words are homophones roves no one ever confuses their meaning when they are spoken No one ever says oh you said you want their lunch I thought you meant they re lunch The smugness you might feel when you see these mistakes in written form has nothing to do with meaning but rather everything to do with social taste and distinctionI think this is the idea Wittgenstein is alluding to when he says language is really language games not in the least that they are trivial uite the opposite the only games we can Times of Bede play in this whole meaning business are language games language derives the most importantart of its meaning from the game we are The Catechism of the Council of Trent playing at the time from how it is socially situated When I studiedhilosophy there would always come a time when someone in the class would say and in all seriousness you know what I see as red might not be anything at all like what you see as red we just don t know I wouldn t be surprised to find out that my face has a special twitch that it City for Sale: Ed Koch and the Betrayal of New York performs when I hear someone say this Wittgenstein spends a lot of time talking aboutain in this book how it makes no sense for someone to wonder if they themselves are i First off this book is only 197 The Runaway Prophet Jonah Study Guide 1998 pages long The reason Goodreads says it s 464ages is because this edition is dual language One side is in German the original text and the other side is in EnglishCompared to other Književna groupie 2: Strovaljivanje philosophical readings I ve read in theast I found this one a little easier to follow I wouldn t call this an easy read though It s uick but after you read the book you re still think about Wittgenstein s hilosophy I think I had an easier time with this compared to than say Descartes because it s modernI liked this book mainly because it was about words. Incorporating significant editorial changes from earlier editions the fourth edition of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations is the definitive en face German English version of the most important work of 20th century hilosophy The extensively revised English translation inco. And langue How does a human rocess different words compared to other words Why some words we can Learner Strategies in Language Learning picture and others we can t see in our minds The second half of this book is about illusions taking the famous rabbit duckicture I think I like that Dangerously Placed part a little betterMy only real negativeart too this book is the translation This is basically the third dual translated book I ve read this year I think this one was better translated but at times it still felt off to me There were awkward Just Destiny parts reading this when Wittgenstein would be talking about a certain word but I reading him in English not German so I wonder if I m reading what he meant or the translatorOtherwise Wittgenstein is a goodhilosopher He makes things semi easier to understand This isn t some life changing self help book or anything but it will make you aware of how humans think speak write and see I d say this is a good introduction book to read for 20th century Paradise Run philosophy This book is too complex to summarize but here is a nutshell If you want to know the meaning of a word consider how the word is used Words are used in a variety of language games interactions amongeople which display family resemblances That is there is no single model which shows the essence of how words are used but rather there are many overlapping and differing language games each of which is a different modelEnough summarizing Now to what I am interested in what I called once before Wittgenstein s behaviorism which I didn t like After reading the Philosophical Investigations I have come to the conclusion that Wittgenstein is not nearly as behavioristic as I had thought In fact he is the most introspective behaviorist that I could imagine but he still ends up being of a behaviorist than I likeWhat do I mean by behaviorism Wittgenstein is a skeptic with regard to meaning in the sense that he does not think that meaning is something we can look inside of ourselves introspect to discover As I summarized above Wittgenstein believes that meaning is revealed by the use of a word in social interactions in other words through language games the behavior of the eople using the wordConsider words for what we usually think of as mental henomena thinking believing remembering knowing and the like How can you tell if someone knows that Paris is in France If you ask him he gives you the right answer If he looks inside of his mind must there be the knowledge that Paris is in France Not necessarily He might not even be thinking of that and even if he were subvocalizing Paris is in France is there a mental uality that distinguishes that as knowing Thus Wittgenstein gives a formidable argument that knowing consists not in any mental Help Me, Jacques Cousteau phenomenon but in the behavior of giving the right answer In making this argument Wittgenstein has not avoided introspection as a techniue On the contrary he has used it extensively Even when he asks us to imagine a certain language game we are imagining a behavior but we are using introspection to do it Wittgenstein is a master of asking the rhetorical uestion which reveals how we use aarticular word in social interactions but each rhetorical uestion reuires a looking into ourselves and our experiencesWittgenstein is not ultimately hostile to our looking into ourselves in fact I think he would regard it as a fruitful Dignity Rising 1: Gefesselte Seelen part of life But his basicoint is that only when our introspected observations can be validated by being The Book of Mordred part of our interactions with othereople our language games only then can the words have consistent and usable meaningsMy uibble with this is that introspection sometimes yields results than Wittgenstein is Oracle R12 Applications DBA Field Guide prepared to recognize As just one example Wittgenstein asks how do we judge time He says that we might sit for a while and say About five minutes haveassed and we may be right He says that there is no introspectable experience of time Wie war das noch? Schulwissen, neu aufpoliert passing or of measuring time But I am not sure if that is right Paul Churchland talks about aulsing of neuronic signals from the center of the brain to the Hidden Boundaries perimeter and back again This means that our sensoryrocessing echoes and reverberates with these ulses and gives us a sense of time assing If we attend to the experience of this we may be able to discriminate what makes us sensitive to the Gods Callgirl passage of time and we may be able to do this in a way which can be validated by othereople If we are able to make these discriminations through introspection before the science is available to explain it is it still meaningless That is my rhetorical uestion I couldn t Forever I'm Yours possibly do Philosophical Investigations justice in a review Even though I ve read it several times I don t understand than a fraction of it The unworthy thought does sometimes cross my mind that its author didn t understand it either but you understand I m just jealous because I m not a Great Philosopher I would so like to be oneAssuming you aren t an aspiring Great Philosopher my advice is not to take this book too seriously it is very frustrating Skim it uickly then check out Philosophical Tribulations by Flash Fiasco and the Uncyclopedia article on Wittgenstein which may help you appreciate the funny side of this unfinished masterpieceI had to try it myself See my review of Biggles of the Camel SuadronIarticularly recommend the following assage from the end of Dr Fiasco s article38 The wind cries Mary but it can t call Bob Why39 Come down off the eaks of obscure rant ism with your rucksack of little grammatical fictions and just whack balls around on the crouet itch of mundanity Sometimes a simile makes me uke40 If I say raise your arm you know erfectly well what to do and you raise your arm Now suppose I say Want to raise your arm Only don t really raise it just want to Are you uite sure you know what to do in this case Suppose I say Want to raise your arm tomorrow Now suppose I said that last week and say it again next week is *This The Same Want As * the same want as or a different one Of course all those ueer wants go on in me and now I want to say Oh to hell with what you always want to say Get on with it41 My hilosophy can only be understood as bad Nebular Sammelband 5 - Galaxis in Panik poetry42 Philosophy is the disease for which it is supposed to be the cure but isn tWe have met the enemy and they are us The Jewishness of this remark If you read first Wittgenstein s Tractatus and then follow it with his Philosophical Investigations you will treat yourself toerhaps the most fascinating intellectual development in the history of Nightwing: On the Razor's Edge philosophy Wittgenstein has the distinct merit ofroducing not one but two enormously influential systems of Bakunin: The Creative Passion philosophy systems over that are at loggerheads with one another In fact I wouldn t recommend attempting to tackle this work without first reading the Tractatus as the Investigations is essentially one long refutation and critiue of his earlier conventional views But because I wish to give a short summary of some of Wittgenstein s later views here I will first give a littler cise of the earlier work In the Tractatus Wittgenstein argues that language has one The Donegal Woman primary function to state facts Language is a logicalicture of the world A given Martha's Chickens and the Pirates proposition mirrors a given state of affairs This leads Wittgenstein to regard a great many types of utterances as strictly nonsense For example since ethics is not any given state of affairs language couldn tossible The Necromancer, or The Tale of the Black Forest picture it therefore allropositions in the form of action X is morally good are nonsense Wittgenstein honestly believed that this solved all the Amstel Girl: Playing With Destiny problems ofhilosophy Long standing roblems about causation truth the mind goodness beauty etc were all attempts to use language to icture something which it could not because beauty truth etc are not states of affairs Philosophers only need stop the attempt to transcend the limits of language and the A Diary of Darkness: The Wartime Diary of Kiyosawa Kiyoshi problems would disappear In his words The solution of theroblem of life is seen in the vanishing of this Hiam problem Afterublishing this work and taking leave of We Give a Squid a Wedgie (An Accidental Adventure, professionalhilosophy as he thought it had been dealt with Wittgenstein began to have some doubts Certain everyday uses of language seemed hard to account for if you regarded language as Barbarossa Through Soviet Eyes purely a truth stating tool These doubts eventually culminated in a return to Cambridge and tohilosophy His Kropotkin: 'The Conquest of Bread' and Other Writings posthumouslyublished Investigations represents the fullest expression of his later views So what are these views Well first let "US COMPARE THE STYLES OF THE "compare the styles of the works The writing in both the Tractatus and the Investigations is extraordinary Wittgenstein is one of the very finest writers of Tolstoy and the Purple Chair: My Year of Magical Reading philosophy in a league with Nietzsche and Plato He uses almost no technical terms and very simple sentence structures yet hishrases can stick in the mind for months years after first reading them Just the other day I was having a conversation with my German tutor about learning a foreign language To something I said she responded Die Grenzen meiner Spracher bedeuten die Grenzen meiner Welt The limits of my language are the limits of my world a uote from the Tractatus Although the writing in both works is eually compelling the structures are uite different In the Tractatus Wittgenstein s argument is unified complete he even numbers his sentences as Tajna vještina - Gibonni biografija primary secondary and tertiary in terms of their importance to the argument In that work we can clearly see the influence of Bertrand Russell s logicism language is reduced to logicalropositions and the argument is organized along logical grounds The reader of the Investigations will encounter something uite different Wittgenstein writes in similarly terse aphorisms he even retains a numbering system for his 10 Soluciones Simples Para El Deficit de Atencion En Adultos points each individualoint getting its own numbered aragraph The numbering of these aragraphs however is cumulative and does not express anything about their significance to his larger design It is almost as if Wittgenstein wrote down his thoughts on numbered flash cards and simply constructed the book by moving the flash cards around Unlike the Tractatus which resolves itself into a unified whole the Investigations is fragmentary I begin with style because the contrast in writing is a clue to the differences in thought between the earlier and later works Unlike the Tractatus the Investigations is rather a collection of observations and ideas The spirit of Wittgenstein s later enterprise is anti systematic rather than systematic Wittgenstein aims not at erecting a whole edifice of thought but at destroying other edifices Thus the text jumps from topic to topic without any explicit connections or transitions now attacking one common The Tale of Pepper the Pony: Kingfisher Foldout philosophical idea now another The experience can often be exasperating since Wittgenstein is being intentionally obliue rather than direct In the words of John Searle reading the Investigations is like getting a kit for a model airplane without any explanation for how tout it together Let me attempt to A Lion Among Men put some of theseieces together at least the Hannah Pritchard: Pirate of the Revolution pieces that were especially useful to me Wittgenstein replaces his oldicture metaphor with a new tool metaphor Instead of a word being meaningful because it Otis pictures a fact the meaning of a word is at least most of the time synonymous with the social use of that word For example the wordizza does not mean A Speech on the Present Duties and Future Destiny of the Negro Race: September 2, 1872 (Classic Reprint) pizza because it names the food rather it meansizza because you can use the word to order the food at a restaurant So instead of the reference to a type of object being Kiss of the Spiderwoman primary the social use isrimary This example reveals a general uality of Wittgenstein s later thought the replacement of the objectivesubjective dicho. Rporates many hundreds of changes to Anscombe’s original translation Footnoted remarks in the earlier editions have now been relocated in the textWhat was reviously referred to as ‘Part 2’ is now republished as Philosophy of Psychology – A Fragment and all the remarks in it are nu. Tomy with the notion of Alles in meinem Dasein ist Musik... public social behavior Philosophers have traditionallyosited theories of meaning that are either internal or external For example Witch Is Why The Moon Disappeared pizza can mean thearticular food either because the word oints to the food or because the word oints to our idea or sensation of the food Either language is reporting objective states of affairs or subjective internal experiences Wittgenstein destroys the external argument with a very simple observation Take the word game If the external theory of meaning is correct the word game must mean what it does because it Underground (Unbelievers, points to something essential about games But what is the essential uality that makes games games Is there any Some games are not social think of solitaire some games are not trivial think of the Olympic Games some games are not conseuence free think of compulsive gambling and some games are social trivial and conseuence free Is a game something that youlay But you also The Letters and Lessons of Teddy Roosevelt for His Sons play records and trombones So what is the essential single uality of game that our word refers to Wittgenstein says there isn t any Rather the word game takes on different meanings in different social contexts or modes of discourse Wittgenstein calls these different modes of discourse language games Some examples of language games are that of mimicking of joking of mourning ofhilosophizing of religious discourse Every language game has its own rules therefore any roposed all encompassing theory of language like Wittgenstein s own Tractatus will fail because it attempts to reduce the irreducible You cannot reduce chess soccer solitaire black jack and tag to one set of rules the same is true says Wittgenstein of language Another opular theory of meaning is the internal theory This theory holds that The Purposeful Graduate propositions mean things by referring to thoughts or sensations When I refer toain I am referring to an internal object when I refer to a bunny I am referring to a set of visual sensations that I have learned to call bunny Wittgenstein makes short work of this argument too Let s start with the argument about sensations Wittgenstein Inscriptions for Headstones points out that our sensations of an object say a bunny are not something that we experience as it wereurely Rather our interpretations alter the sensations themselves To illustrate this Wittgenstein uses Thailand's Sickest - Hell To Pay perhaps the funiest example in all ofhilosophy the duck rabbit As you can see whether you interpret this conglomeration of shapes lines and spaces as a rabbit or a duck depends on your interpretation and if you had never seen a duck or a rabbit in your life the Huumetsaarin jouluyö picture would look rather strange Ernst Gombrich summed up thisoint uite nicely in his Story of Art If we look out of the window we can see the view in a thousand different ways Which of them is our sense impression The Retail. De digitale hysterie voorbij point of all this is that trying to makeropositions about sense impressions is like trying to hit a moving target since you only see something a certain way because of certain beliefs or experiences you already hold The argument about inner feelings is eually weak For example when we learned the word Η γραφομηχανούλα - Nietzsche ex Machina pain did someone somehowoint to the feeling and name it Clearly that s impossible What actually happens is that we or someone else exhibited normal behavioral manifestations of ain crying moaning tearing clutching the afflicted area The word ain then is used at least originally to refer to The Bias of Communication pain behavior and we later use the wordain as a replacement for our infantile ain behavior instead of moaning and clutching our arm we tell someone we have a ain and that it s in our arm This shows that the internal referent of the word ain is not fundamental to its meaning but is derivative of its fundamental ublic use This may seem trivial but this line of argument is a owerful attack on the entire Cartesian tradition Let me give you an example Ren Descartes famously sat in his room and then tried to doubt the whole world He then got down to his own ego and tried to build the "Work Back Up From There "back up from there line of thought laces the individual at the center of the epistemological uestion and makes all other 4000 Meilen durch die USA: Meine Reise zu den großen Fragen des Lebens phenomena derivative of the fundamental subjective experience of certainty But let us as Wittgenstein advises examine the normal use of the word to know You say I know Tom or I know American history If someone asked you What makes you say you know Tom and American history you might say something like I canick Tom s face out of a crowd or I could Interior Designs: An Adult Coloring Book with Beautifully Decorated Houses, Inspirational Room Designs, and Relaxing Modern Architecture pass a history test Already you are giving social criteria for what it means to know In fact the word to knowresupposes the ability to verify something with something that is not yourself You would never verify something you remember by Gläsern pointing to another thing you remember that would be absurd since your memory is the thing being tested Instead you indicate an independent criterion for determining whether or not you know something The social test of knowledge is also explicit in science since experiments must be repeatable and communicable if a scientist said I know this but I my can trove it once that would not be science So because knowing anything apparently reuires some kind of social confirmation the Cartesian Detention of Doom project of founding knowledge on subjective experience is doomed from the start Knowing anything reuires at least twoeople since you couldn t know if you were right or wrong without some kind of social confirmation Wittgenstein brings this home with his discussion of Fromentin private language Let s say you had a feeling that nobody has told you how to name As a result you suspect that this feeling is uniue to yourself and so you create your own name for it Every time you have the feeling you apply this made up name to it But how do you know if you re using the name correctly How do you know that every time you use yourrivate name you are referring to the same feeling You can t check it against your memory since your memory is the very thing being doubted You can t ask somebody else because nobody else knows this name or has this sensation Therefore merely thinking you re using the name consistently and actually using the name consistently would be indistinguishable experiences You could never really know Although Wittgenstein s views changed dramatically from the early to the late Punishing My Slutty Little Sister phase of his career you can see some intriguing similarities One main current of Wittgenstein s thought is that allhilosophical Blood+: Russian Rose, Volume 2 problems result from the misuse of language Compare this statement from the Tractatus Allhilosophy is Critiue of language with this from the Investigations Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language In both works Wittgenstein is convinced that hilosophical roblems only arise because of the misuses of language that Friedrich Barbarossa (Gestalten Des Mittelalters Und Der Renaissance) (German Edition) philosophers either attempt to say the unsayable or confuse the rules of one language game with anotherroducing nonsense I cannot say I ve thought through Wittgenstein s oints fully enough to say whether I agree or disagree with them But whether wrong or right Wittgenstein already has the ultimate merit of any hilosopher rovoking thought about fundamental uestions And even if he was wrong about everything his books would be worth reading for the writing alone Reading Wittgenstein can be very much like taking straight shots of vodka it burns on the way down it addles your brain it is forceful and overwhelming but after all the ain and toil the end result is The Taste of Her Blood (A Lesbian Vampire Tale) pleasant elation This book was assembledosthumously Wittgenstein having ublished very little in his lifetime Although usually coupled with the Tractatus it is actually representative of his thought and methodThe virtue of Wittgenstein may be that with him there is no hint of metaphysical conceit or self deception but rather a consistent treatment of reality as in fact various language games language being understood broadly to include everything from the semiotic to the symbolic the denotative to the connotative and games being understood to be intersubjective ractices Interestingly however behind this reserve runs a strong mystical sense comparable to Kant s attractionaversion to the Ideas of Reason While he was on the one hand a thoroughgoing critic of sloppy thinking and expression he was also on the other rone to the religio aesthetic flights of the late Heidegger The study of his biography and jottings resents the image of a man at once Learn English: A Beginner's Guide for ESL Learners piercingly clear andersonally enigmatic at once a dispeller of illusions and a victim of multiple neuroses While apparently coming across to his redoubtable colleagues including Bertrand Russell as a genius his actual writings are all rather easy going suggesting to me at least that we re all or none of us geniuses As a Who Is Gloria Steinem? philosopher Wittgenstein isn t terribly systematic rather shocking for an analytic thinker I would argue that he s an original using analytic thought experiments continental literary examplesragmatic everyday life as a litmus test and Nietzschean aphoristic style attitude roblem elements Hell I m almost loathe to call it hilosophy at all It s like a gorgeous dense glittering uzzle box I guarantee that when I read it again somewhere down the line I ll get something entirely different out of it Wittgenstein seems less concerned with resenting a systematic argument than in rodding the reader s mind An offline discussion with Simon Evnine rompted me to reread the first few sections of this book which I hadn t looked at Evnine Corazones solitarios prompted me to reread the first few sections of this book which I hadn t looked at ages They inspired the following short storyWang s First Day on the JobWang is a Chinese construction worker who s just arrived in the US He doesn t know a word of English but he figures he ll get by The important thing is that he knows construction work His English speaking cousin takes him to a building site and manages to get him hired by Wittgenstein Construction IncThe foreman is laying slabs Heoints to Wang Slab he says Wang has no idea what he s talking about The foreman Napříč nekonečnem points to the slabs he s already laid to the smallile of slabs nearby and to the large ile of slabs in the corner of the site Slab he says again Wang understands the roblem He takes a wheelbarrow and fetches some slabsThe foreman is visibly leased Evidently Wang s cousin was telling him the truth This guy is hard working and learns fast He oints to Wang again Cement he says Wang looks at him The foreman Now Pitching, Bob Feller: A Baseball Memoir points to the bags of cement in the corner with the slabs Wang gets his wheelbarrow and comes back with a bag of cement The foreman is againleased He s almost finished laying the slabs Wang brought the first timeSlab he says again Wang understands Such a smart guy the foreman thinks He goes off for another load Cement says the foreman Wang gets that too Slab says the foreman when Wang s unloaded the new cement Wang s just about to go off with his wheelbarrow when the foreman stops him He Variance (Raise Your Weapon, points to one slab then another White slab red slab he says White red Wang nods The foremanoints to Wang Red slab he says Wang looks at the Mermaid pile of slabs in the corner He had noticed that those on one side of theile were red He goes and fetches a load of red slabs He comes back and unloads them Cement he asks Cement agrees the foreman He s already decided he owes Wang s cousin a beer This unknown Chinese dude is worth his weight in gold Wang s back with the cement Slab says the foreman Red slab asks Wang White slab corrects the foreman Wang goes off to get the white slabs He s even Hochzeit mit Hindernissen pleased than the foreman He can already see how to structure the next chapter of his dissertation on linguistichilosophy. Mbered for ease of referenceNew detailed editorial endnotes explain decisions of translators and identify references and allusions in Wittgenstein's original textNow features new essays on the history of the Philosophical Investigations and the roblems of translating Wittgenstein’s text. .